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E-paper displays achieve visual effects by reflecting ambient light, so they look more like regular paper. This type of display is very energy efficient, because once the display is turned on, it no longer needs current to maintain the display of text, and only consumes energy when turning pages.
Cholesterol liquid crystals use materials that are similar in structure to cholesterol molecules, hence the name. In addition to pure cholesteric liquid crystals, there are also nematic liquid crystals added with optical rotators, or nematic liquid crystals added with cholesteric liquid crystal molecules. The liquid crystals added with materials have different wavelengths and optoelectronic properties. Nematic liquid crystal after adding the optical active agent, the liquid crystal material will produce a helical structure. Placing cholesteric liquid crystals on two horizontal substrates, in the absence of electric field alignment, the cholesteric liquid crystals tend to be arranged in a plane helical arrangement, and can reflect light with colors under the condition of reflection conforming to a specific light wavelength, or is in a transparent state. Cholesteric liquid crystals can achieve a bistable effect in two ways: one is Surface Stabilized Cholesteric Texture (SSCT); the other is polymer stabilized cholesteric Texture (PSCT), both of which are One of the very popular cholesteric liquid crystal display technologies.
The working principle of cholesteric liquid crystal display is: on the component, it includes upper and lower substrates, spacers and black absorbing materials like general passively driven liquid crystals. The upper and lower substrates can be made of glass or plastic substrates, except for passive driving electrodes and alignment layers In addition, in order to achieve a good reflection effect, the size of the spacer is about 6-8 times of the pitch.
Electrophoresis has several advantages. One is low energy consumption. Thanks to the bistability, the image remains on the display for days or months after the power is turned off. Second, the displays produced by electrophoretic technology are reflective, so they have good sunlight readability, and can also be combined with front or side light for use in dark environments. The third is the potential for low production costs, as the technology does not require strict packaging and is feasible with solution processing techniques such as printing. Fourth, electrophoretic displays feature flexible form factors, allowing them to be fabricated on plastic, metal or glass surfaces, so it is the best choice for flexible display technology.